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Puerto Ricans in Chicago are people living in Chicago who have ancestral connections to the island of Puerto Rico. They have contributed to the economic, social and cultural well-being of Chicago for more than seventy years.
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Finally, select HLH-CAB members reviewed the study findings presented in this paper, assisted with writing this manuscript, and helped to develop a dissemination plan. Diet, physical activity, and body image are three of the many correlates that have been examined in relation to overweight and obesity. Snowball recruitment occurred as information about the study was disseminated through flyers or word of mouth. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire EDE-Q [ 29 ; 30 ] was used to exclude those with an eating disorder and was modified to be administered by the interviewer.
It will be used for descriptive purposes. All participants who completed the eligibility interview in person received a healthy snack. Finally, a review article found that overall, the body image of Latino men did not differ from Whites [ 9 ].
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Academic and community partners worked together to tailor the methodology, consent form, questionnaires, interview documents, and objective measures prior to the recruitment of participants. If subjects were not eligible and if eligibility was performed in-person, then they were given a small token of appreciation.
Overall, Latino men are noted to have a low intake of fruits and vegetables [ 6 ] and Latino men and women engage in less leisure time physical activity than non-Hispanic Whites [ 7 ]. Overall, it is important to examine body image in Mexican and Puerto Rican men so that culturally appropriate obesity interventions can be developed which take into cultural attitudes about body image perceptions and preferences.
For the past 23 years, the first author has engaged in various types of community-based research with Latinos, with the last 13 years focused on community engaged research. Community partners also helped to refine the recruitment plan and incentives, as well as provided feedback about the Spanish translation of documents [ 25 ]. Models of conducting culturally sensitive research emphasize the role of culture throughout the research process. Recruitment was also conducted via postings to listserves and websites from Latino organizations, health organizations, and other organizations in general.
A total of participants completed the measures and the health and culture interview and completed all study components. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria were as follows: Inclusion: a Mexican and Puerto Rican men. During that in-person visit, the consent form was read to potential participants whom were asked to read and it before any measurements were taken. have implications for the development of a future intervention that incorporates the role of cultural factors into a community participatory obesity intervention for Latino men.
Direct in-person and indirect recruitment was simultaneously conducted. Committee and pre-test translation procedures were used, and differences in wording based on Latino ethnicity were assessed. The sample included Latino men 99 Mexicans and Puerto Ricans. It is plausible that bicultural Latinos may exhibit a greater adaptability to diets emphasized in the United States, compared to those who are not bicultural. Ethnic pride has been noted to be a protective factor for certain health behaviors in ethnic minorities [ 15 ]. Acculturative stress may play an important role in health behaviors and biological processes that may contribute to the development of obesity [ 13 ].
Finally, the first author has participated in numerous community-based initiatives focused on health and wellness, which allowed her to interact with community partners in different capacities. Measures were translated from English into Spanish through a back translation procedure [ 26 ; 27 ] using a professional translation company that the first author has used in numerous prior studies. Participants who were eligible for the study completed the following procedures: First, they completed a two and Chicago Illinois IL rican men dating half hour health and culture interview and their body fat, hip and waist were measured.
This training was conducted with project staff and included an overview of culturally competent research and a discussion of methods for increasing multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. A variety of correlates have been explored and are associated with overweight and obesity. In-person or phone interviews assessed initial eligibility for the current study. Certain community partners for the current study also served as co-authors on numerous conference presentations with the first author across various projects. Weight was assessed using a Seca company digital scale with participants wearing light clothes and no shoes.
It has been argued that Latino cultural values and worldviews may represent the latent variable of acculturation, and therefore, should be measured [ 16 ]. Obesity is a risk factor for a of negative health outcomes including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and many different forms of cancer [ 2 ]. Indirect recruitment was conducted via newspaper advertisements placed in a Latino publication La Voz del Paseo Boricua as well as in the newsletters of various organizations e.
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Flyers were also given to community members, physicians, health care professionals, and other interested individuals, as well as posted in Latino neighborhoods, at various places within the University of Illinois at Chicago, and in the overall Chicagoland area. No Upper BMI limit.
Overweight and obesity are associated with ificant health problems and rates of obesity are high among Latino men.
Socio-economic status was assessed with the Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status [ 34 ] which combines information on sex, marital status, education, and occupation. Participants were also asked to self-report their weight and height so initial eligibility could be determined and this was later confirmed through objective measures.
This study was also conducted within a community-based participatory research CBPR framework, which emphasizes the collaborative role of community partners throughout various phases of the research study and in the dissemination of the [ 23 ]. Qualitative data from a subset of Latinos will help to identify cultural messages to use in a future obesity intervention. Moreover, in one study, across every income category, the prevalence of leisure time inactivity was lower among Caucasian men and women than among Mexican Americans and African Americans [ 8 ].
Overall, there is a dearth of research that examines the role of ethnic identity as it relates to correlates of obesity in Latino men.
Due to the importance of going beyond ethnic and racialthe current study sought to explore the deeper aspects of ethnicity and race by examining four potentially important cultural factors acculturation, acculturative stress, biculturalism, and cultural values that may be related to diet, physical activity and body image in Latinos.
For example, among Latino men, the prevalence of obesity ranges from Due to the high prevalence and negative outcomes associated with obesity, studies that examine correlates of obesity in subgroups of Latinos are needed, particularly among Puerto Rican and Mexican men due to their high rates of obesity and the fact that these are the two largest Latino ethnic groups in the U.
Obesity is often an outcome of complex interactions between individual and environmental factors [ 5 ]. In terms of research training, we adhered to the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists [ 19 ] that emphasize the awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to conduct culturally competent research. Overweight and obesity are ificant and common public health issues in the United States [ 1 ]. Numerous studies have found an association between acculturation and obesity [ 12 ].
This study also examined whether Mexican and Puerto Rican men differ in the logistical, practical, and cultural considerations regarding diet, physical activity, and body image interventions. However, to date, little research has examined how cultural conflict or stress may affect correlates of obesity.
Fat distribution was measured by waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio was calculated.
Social Desirability was measured by the Marlowe-Crowne 2 10 Social Desirability Scale [ 35 ] and social desirability measures have been used in prior studies to assess for possible biases in responses [ 36 ]. Measures were translated and adapted as recommended by several guidelines [ 26 — 28 ].
The conceptual framework guiding this study derived from the PEN-3 Theoretical Model [ 18 ] and models of conducting culturally sensitive research [ 19 ; 20 ]. Study staff set up a table with flyers and publicized a free culture and health research study for Latino males. Height was assessed using a stadiometer. Taken together, the study team had the skills, knowledge and expertise in Latino recruitment, retention and engagement, which was critical to the success of this study.
As seen in the following sections, these cultural factors have been Chicago Illinois IL rican men dating ignored among Mexican and Puerto Rican men. Learn More. This paper describes the de, rationale and participant characteristics of the key demographic variables assessed in an NIH-funded study RCA addressing culture and several obesity-related variables diet, physical activity, and body image among Mexican and Puerto Rican men using a community-based participatory research framework.
They could be biracial, but they had to identify as Mexican or Puerto Rican. For example, the translation of the consent form- although initially developed for women- was adjusted for men in this study and incentives differed for men versus women.
However, this review also found that Hispanic men engage in normative and more extreme weight loss strategies to a greater extent than Whites [ 9 ]. They also received small healthy snacks and water during the interview. Although ethnic differences in correlates of obesity such as diet, physical activity, and body image have been examined, little research has been conducted to understand the factors that underlie these differences.
In addition to being widespread and associated with high mortality, overweight and obesity disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Commonly cited Latino cultural values include: familism familypersonalismo personal relationshipsfatalism fatalistic beliefsfolk illness beliefs, spirituality, and machismo an exaggerated sense of masculinity [ 17 ].
The test of the study hypotheses and a detailed description of the diet, physical activity, body image and cultural variables will be described in future publications. According to James [ 21 ], the PEN-3 model emphasizes culture as the center of health promotion programs [ 21 ] and this model has been used in studies to aid in the development of culture-centered interventions [ 21 ; 22 ].
For those who met the initial eligibility criteria, eligibility was confirmed by measuring their weight and height in person.
Participants completed objective measures height, weight, body fat, hip, waista health and culture interview, a diet questionnaire, and used an accelerometer to measure their level of physical activity. The first author has also written a paper with select CAB members from one of the partner sites [ 25 ] and a of community partners have also collaborated with the PI to write two NIH grants and a proposal development grant.
Certification to conduct the interviewers and anthropometric measures was conducted by the PI and senior staff members. Finally, the relationship between biculturalism and diet, physical activity, and body image is also unknown. Certain community partners were also selected based on their expertise in developing bilingual health materials and physical activity and wellness programs. There were no ificant differences in religion, education, health insurance, Body Mass Index BMIbody fat, hip and waist measurements, and the language preference of the interview. Acculturative stress describes the stress that individuals experience as they undergo the process of cultural change associated with acculturation.